Basic principles of proper nutrition

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Basic principles of proper nutrition

In recent years, nutritionists do not consider the caloric content of the diet to be the main parameter of nutrition and benefit. Counting calories is useful to navigate the choice of dishes and make the menu more diverse, and weight loss occurs due to their deficiency. But reducing the caloric content of dishes often leads to a lack of energy and basic vital macro- and micronutrients. Basic metabolism and energy balance are not the only criteria for a healthy diet.

There are three groups of major macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. These nutrients (plus water) are the basis for life. Trace minerals are important vitamins and minerals. Each of them plays its own special role in the functioning of the body. So, magnesium is involved in more than six hundred processes, including energy production, the functioning of the nervous system and muscle contraction. Iron carries oxygen, affects the immune system and brain function, and calcium is an essential component of teeth and bones, a key mineral for the heart and muscles. The lack of certain vitamins can be compensated by pharmacy preparations, but it is better not to bring to a deficiency and get everything you need through food. The daily need for certain substances varies depending on the individual characteristics of the body.

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To understand which products are useful, you need to understand their composition and properties. First of all, it is important to assess the presence of macronutrients:

  • Carbohydrates (4 kcal per g) are found in grains, cereals, starchy foods - bread, pasta, potatoes, as well as in fruits, legumes, dairy products, sugar.
  • Proteins (4 kcal per g) - meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, soybeans, sprouts
  • Fats (9 kcal per g) - nuts, seeds, oils, fatty fish, avocado

It should be borne in mind that few products consist of only one macronutrient. Most are sources of proteins, fats and carbohydrates at the same time, but in different percentages. For example, a hundred grams of walnuts contains about 60 g of fat, but also 12 g of protein and 11 g of carbohydrates.

Proper nutrition involves eating whole foods, which make up 80-90% of the diet. They are rich in nutrients and often have a low, but sufficient calorie content. That is, from each portion there will be more benefits without compromising health and figure. These are necessarily cereals, cereals, vegetables, fruits, eggs, meat, fish, dairy products, nuts, oils. For variety, this menu base can be supplemented with ingredients optionally: superfoods, spices, sprouts, soy and legume products, berries, seeds. In addition, you need to carefully monitor the sufficient amount of substances if you intentionally exclude any products (with allergies, vegetarian or vegan diet).

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